Despite numerous regional and global frameworks in the form of the various NWFZ treaties and the NPT, there are few available international mechanisms addressing nuclear disarmament. Those that do exist are relatively nascent and, in many ways, still evolving.

This paper addresses the complexities associated with nuclear disarmament in the absence of an internationally accepted multilateral framework. The paper sketches out and examines the implications of two primary pathways to achieve nuclear disarmament in a future WMDFZ treaty, and the inclusion of specific disarmament provisions in the zone treaty. The paper also discusses the implications for each pathway.

The paper's objective is to provide officials and experts with an overview of existing frameworks and tools for nuclear disarmament and how these might be addressed in the regional context and within the Middle East WMDFZ treaty.

Citation: Tomisha Bino and Karim Haggag (2023) “Examining Modalities for Nuclear Disarmament in the Middle East WMD-Free Zone Treaty”, UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland.


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