This fourth paper in the International Cyber Operations Research Paper Series analyses the cybersecurity strategies of the United States and Canada, including their treatment of so-called offensive cyber operations and relevant national doctrines pertaining to active defence and self-defence.

To better inform conclusions, the concept of offensive cyber operation is interpreted broadly, incorporating relevant strategies and – where necessary – the policy statements, manuals and legislation of each State. Particular attention is also paid to the role of international law and emerging cyber norms in guiding State practice relating to cyber operations in both countries.


Citation: Scott J. Shackelford (2021) "The Cyber Operations Strategies of the United States and Canadian Governments: A Comparative Analysis", UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland.