The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) in military operations and weapons systems introduces a wide range of risks, including risks of misuse and inadvertent escalation in conflict. While the international community has begun to address some of these concerns both at the national level and in regional and multilateral forums, further dedicated efforts are needed to map and mitigate risks. 

Confidence-building measures (CBMs) for AI can provide flexible options for the future development and deployment of AI-enabled systems. This framing paper introduces a new UNIDIR project, which aims at developing a possible roadmap for the future elaboration of CBMs for AI.

The first phase of the project consists of a risk-mapping analysis, unpacking risks of the technology and assessing how they may translate into risks for international peace and security. The second phase of the project will consider pathways for the elaboration of CBMs in a series of multi-stakeholder engagements.

Citation: Ioana Puscas (2022) "Confidence-Building Measures for Artificial Intelligence: A Framing Paper", UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland.