This brief is designed to assist policymakers and members of armed forces to appreciate likely gaps, challenges and deficiencies to reduce civilian harm from the effects of explosive weapons in urban environments as observed in the conduct of multilateral operations in East Africa, and offer observations to improve ways to reduce civilian harm in lower-capacity, and often asymmetrical, contexts.

This brief is the result of informal subregional dialogue and consultations, based on the facilitated discussions at a workshop held in the Humanitarian Peace Support School in Nairobi, Kenya on 10-11 March 2020.

Citation: Roger Lane, Simon Karanja, Larry Lewis, Himayu Shiotani and Einas Mohammed (2020) "Urban Conflict & Targeting: A Special Problem for Protection", UNIDIR, Geneva.

Teaser: A reflection from experiences and lessons in East Africa