The development of uncrewed ground systems (UGSs) – which include vehicles that can be piloted either remotely or semi-autonomously – is increasing.

This primer introduces the different types of UGS (or "ground robots"), describes their key components and functions, and outlines the main challenges that these systems can pose to international security.

The focus of the primer is on describing the main areas of technological innovation and development related to the key components that comprise UGSs, outlining the anticipated areas of progress and potential concern.

Sponsor Organizations: Germany (Conventional Arms and Ammunition Programme) and Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Microsoft (Security and Technology Programme).

Citation: Sarah Grand-Clément and Theò Bajon (2022) "Uncrewed Ground Systems: A Primer", UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland.