International discussions about autonomous weapons have thus far focused predominantly on conventional weapon systems. These systems are not, however, the only domain in which technological developments in autonomy can have an impact on international security. Rapid advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence also have a significant impact in the field of cyber security, and in particular for offensive operations carried out in cyberspace, so-called “cyber operations”. As this paper explains, the interaction of cyber operations and increasingly autonomous physical weapon systems may give rise to new security challenges, as these interactions can multiply complexity and introduce new vulnerabilities.

Citation: Security and Technology Programme (2017) "The Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies: Autonomous Weapon Systems and Cyber Operations", UNIDIR, Geneva.