The United Nations Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters held its 71st session in Geneva from 29 January to 1 February 2019. The Board focused its attention on the role of the disarmament, arms control and the non-proliferation regime in managing strategic competition and building trust. This publication seeks to take a broader view. This paper first addresses what is at stake for the principal protagonists—the United States, the Russian Federation, and China. It then sets out possible pathways to reverse today’s slide to intensified great power strategic competition and the breakdown of the arms control endeavour.