The Ninth Review Conference of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) provides States parties with an important opportunity to advance biological disarmament and chart the future course of this increasingly important treaty.

To stimulate thinking ahead of the Review Conference, which is currently scheduled for August 2022, this report provides a forthright assessment of the risks, benefits, and financial implications of four different potential Review Conference outcomes.

A quick reference table of potential outcomes of the Ninth BWC Review Conference is also available.

Citation: Jez Littlewood (2021) "Potential Outcomes of the Ninth BWC Review Conference", UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland.

Sponsor Organizations: Governments of France, Germany, Norway and the Philippines.