The safeguards administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are an essential element of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Conclusion and implementation of a comprehensive safeguards agreement (CSA) with the IAEA is one of the key obligations of non-nuclear-weapon States Parties to the NPT.

This paper looks at the role of the IAEA in providing a robust technical and organizational framework to consider cases of non-compliance with safeguards obligations. The paper shows that throughout the history of the IAEA, there have been eight cases of non-compliance that were brought to the attention of the IAEA Board of Governors. Each of these cases was handled by the IAEA taking into consideration the seriousness of the situation and the approach taken by the State to remedy the situation.

Citation: Olli Heinonen (2020) “IAEA Mechanisms to Ensure Compliance with NPT Safeguards.” WMDCE Series No. 2, UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland.