This publication is part of the UNIDIR project on ‘Confidence-Building Measures for Artificial Intelligence’.

Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years, combined with the technology’s scalability and convergence with other domains, have prompted numerous concerns about the risks of AI to global security, including risks of misuse and escalation. However, policy discussions still lack a comprehensive analysis of the technology's risks and how categories of risks are interrelated.

This report provides an overview of the main categories of risks of AI in the context of international peace and security, across domains of use and applications.

This research concludes phase one of the UNIDIR project on CBMs for AI. It provides a basis for multi-stakeholder engagements to understand the risks and to advance discussions about CBMs, which can help promote a more transparent, safe and responsible environment for the development and use of AI.

Citation: Ioana Puscas (2023) "AI and International Security: Understanding the Risks and Paving the Path for Confidence-Building Measures", UNIDIR, Geneva, Switzerland